(parallel passages)

Scholars had known for centuries about a lost gospel called the Gospel of Thomas, referred to by Justinian, Origen, and also Eusebius. But no copy had ever been found, except for a fragment in a jar of manuscripts found in Damascus which was not recognized as the gospel of Thomas. Finally, in 1945, two years before the miraculous discovery of the Qumran manuscripts, which have come to be known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, a jar was found in Egypt which also miraculously contained a copy of the complete gospel according to Thomas. This was recognized at once as a document of very high authenticity, confirmed by carbon-14 dating. It is not a narrative gospel, but consists of 114 sayings or parables and conversations with his disciples. Many (but not all) of these match sayings and parables found in Mark, Luke, and Matthew. Many of the others are very enigmatic, even more than the parables in the New Testament. Here is a summary of the statements for which there is a parallel passage in the other gospels.

1. Jesus said, Whoever finds the meaning of these sayings shall not taste death.

2. Jesus said, Let him who seeks not cease seeking until he finds; and when he finds he will be turned around; and when he is turned around he will marvel, and he will reign over the all.

3. Jesus said, If those who lead you say to you, See, the kingdom is in the sky, then birds of the heaven will precede you. And if they say, It is in the sea; then the fish of the sea will precede you. Rather the kingdom is inside you, and all around you. When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will become aware that you are sons of the living God. But if you do not know yourselves, then you are in poverty, and you are that poverty.

4. Jesus said, The man old in days will not hesitate to ask a little child of 7 days about the Place of Life, and he will live; for many who are first shall become last and they shall be a single One.

5. Recognize what is in your sight, and what is hidden from you will become plain to you. For there is nothing hidden which will not be revealed.

6. His disciples questioned him and said, Should we fast? How shall we pray? Should we give to charity? What diet should we observe?
      Jesus said, Do not lie; and do not do what you dislike, for all things are revealed to heaven. For there is nothing hidden that will not be revealed, and nothing covered up that will not be discovered.

8a. Jesus said, The enlightened man is like a wise fisherman, who cast his net into the sea; and drew it up from the sea full of small fish. Among them he found a fine large fish. The wise fisherman threw the small fish back into the sea and easily chose the large fish.
8b. He that has ears to hear, let him hear!

9. (The parable of the sower)

10. Jesus said, I have cast fire upon the earth, and see, I am guarding it until it is ablaze.

13. Jesus said to his disciples, Compare me to something, and tell me who I am like.
        Simon Peter said to him, You are like a good angel.
        Matthew said to him, You are like a wise philosopher.
        Thomas said to him, Master, my mouth is unable to say who you are like.
        Jesus said, I am not your master; but because you have drunk, you have become enlivened from the bubbling spring that I have made to gush out.
        Jesus then took him aside, and spoke three sayings to him.
        Now, when Thomas was returned to his companions, they asked him, What did Jesus say to you?
        Thomas said to them: If I tell you any of the sayings that he said to me, you will take up stones and throw them at me; and fire will come from the stones and burn you up.
        (John 8:51)

        (Luke 11:9-10;
        Matt. 7:7-8)

        (Luke 17:20-21)

        (Luke 18:17;
        Mark 10:15,31)

        (Mark 4:22;
        Luke 13:2)

        (Luke 6:31;


    (Mark 4:8,23;
    Luke 14:35b;

        (Mark 4:3-9;
        Luke 8:5-8a)

        (Luke 12:49-50)

    (Mark 8:27-30;
    Luke 9:18-21;


(This passage is similar to the report in all three of the Synoptic gospels, with the difference that it is Thomas who is special, rather than Peter, as in Matthew's version, or the "beloved" disciple, who appears several times in the gospel of John.)

14a. Jesus said to them, if you fast, you will bring a sin upon yourselves; and if you pray, you will be condemned; and if you give alms, you will harm your spirits.
    (Mark 2:19;
    Matt. 6:1-18)

(This one appears to be opposite to the teaching in Matthew, that you can fast or pray or give alms, as long as you do it in secret.)

14b. And as you go into every land and wander in the countryside, if they receive you, eat what they set before you, and heal the sick
among them.
14c. For what goes into your mouth will not defile you, but what comes out of your mouth that is what will defile you.

16. Jesus said, Perhaps people think that I have come to bring peace upon the earth. They do not see that I am bringing divisions upon the earth, fire, sword, strife. For there will be five in a house, three will be against two, and two against three; the father against the son, and the son against the father, and they shall stand boldly, being Alone.
(cf. #10)

17. Jesus said, I will give you what no eye has seen, and what no ear has heard, and what no hand has touched, and what has not arisen in the heart of man.

20. The disciples said to Jesus, Tell us, what is the kingdom of heaven like?
        He said to them, It is like a grain of mustard smaller than all the other seeds; but when it falls on plowed soil, it puts out a large stem and becomes a shelter for the birds of the sky.

21b. For this reason I say: if the owner of the house is aware that the thief is coming, he will stay awake before he comes and will not allow the thief to tunnel into his house of his kingdom to carry away
his goods.
        But you, already watching the world, prepare for action with great strength, lest the robbers should find a way to come at you, because the advantage that you expect, they will find.
        Let there be among you a man who is understanding!
21c. When the produce ripens, he will come in haste, his sickle in his hand, to reap it. He who has ears to hear, let him hear!

22a. Jesus saw children who were being suckled. He said to his disciples, These children who are being suckled are like those who will enter the kingdom.
        They said, Shall we then, being children, enter the kingdom?

24. His disciples said, Show us the place where you are, because it is necessary for us to seek after it.
        He said to them: He who has ears, let him hear;
        There is light at the center of a man of light, and he illumines the whole world; if he does not shine, there is darkness.

25. Jesus said, Love your brother even as your own soul; guard him even as the pupil of your eye.

26. Jesus said, The mote that is in your brother's eye you see, but the beam that is in your own eye you see not. When you cast the beam out of your own eye, then you will be clearly to cast the mote out of your brother's eye.

30. Jesus said, The place where there are three gods, they are gods; where there are two or one, I myself am with him.

31. Jesus said, No prophet is accepted in his own country; no physician heals those who recognize him.

32. Jesus said, A city built on a high mountain and made strong cannot fall, nor can it be hidden.

33. Jesus said, What you will hear in one ear and in the other ear, that proclaim from the housetops.
        For no one lights a lamp and puts it under a bowl, nor does he put it in a hidden place, but he puts it on the lamp stand in order that everyone who goes in and comes out may see its light.

34. Jesus said, If a blind man guides the being of a blind man, both of them shall fall to the bottom of a pit.
35. Jesus said, It is not possible for one to enter the house of the strong man and take it by force unless he binds his hands; then will he plunder his house.
36. Jesus said, Have no care, from morning until evening, and from evening until morning, for what you will put on.

38. Jesus said, Many times have you longed to hear these words which I say to you and you have no other from whom to hear them.
        But there will be days when you will seek after me and you will not find me.

39a. Jesus said, The Pharisees and the scribes took the keys of knowledge, and they hid them. Neither did they enter, nor did they allow those who wished to enter to do so.

39b. But you, become prudent as serpents and innocent even as

40. Jesus said, A vine was planted without the Father, and, being not made firm, it will be pulled up by its roots and perish.

41. Jesus said, He who has in his hand, to him shall more be given; and he who does not have, even the little that he has shall be taken
from him.

44. Jesus said, He who blasphemes against the Father, it shall be forgiven him, and he who blasphemes against the son, it shall be forgiven him; but he who blasphemes against the pure spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither on earth nor in heaven.
    (Luke 10:8-9;
    Matt. 10:7-8)

    (Mark 7:15;

    (Luke 12:51-53;

    I Cor. 2:9)

    (Mark 4:30-32;
    Luke 13:18-19;

    (Luke 12:39-40;

    (Mark 4:29)

    (Mark 10:13-14;
    Luke 18:15-16)

    (cf #8b)
    (Luke 11:14)

    (Luke 6:35;
    John 15:13)
    (Luke 6:41-42;


    (Mark 6:4;
    Luke 4:24;
    John 4:44)

    (Luke 12:3)
    (Luke 11:33;

    (Luke 6:39;
    (Luke 11:21;

    (Luke 12:22;

    (Luke 17:22)

    (Luke 11:52;

    (Luke 10:3;


    (Mark 4:25;
    Luke 8:18;
    Luke 19:26;

    (Mark 3:28-30;
    Luke 12:10;

(This appears to be different from the way it is expressed in Mark, Luke, and Matthew.)

45. Jesus said, Grapes are not harvested from thorn trees, nor are figs gathered from thistles, for these give no fruit.
        Good people bring forth good from the storehouse of their hearts, but bad persons bring forth harm from the evil stored up in their hearts, and their words are harmful; for out of the excess in their hearts do they speak evil.

46. Jesus said, From Adam until John the Baptizer among the children born of women there is none higher than John, such that his vision will not be blurred.
        But I have said, He among you who becomes as a child shall know the kingdom, and he shall be higher than John.

47a. Jesus said, It is impossible for a man to mount two horses, for his to stretch two bows; and it is impossible for a servant to serve two masters; otherwise he will honor the one and offend the other.
47b. Let a man drink old wine, and now he longs to drink new wine.
        And new wine is not poured into old wineskins lest they should burst; and old wine is not poured into a new wineskin, lest it be
        Nor is an old patch is sewn onto a new garment because there would be a division.

48. Jesus said, If two make peace with each other in this single house, they will say to the mountain, "Move away", and it shall

51. His disciples asked him, On which day will the repose of the dead come about? and on which day will the new world come? He said to them, What you expect has already come, but you, you
recognize it not.

54. Jesus said, Happy are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens.

55. Jesus said, He who does not turn away from his father and his mother will not be able to become my disciple, and he who does not turn away from his brothers and sisters and does not carry his cross in my way will not be worthy of me.

57. Jesus said, The kingdom of the Father is like a man who sowed good seed. His enemy came by night, and sowed weeds among the good seed. The man did not allow the labourers to pull up the weeds; he said to them, Lest perhaps you would go, saying, "We will pull up the weeds", and you pull up the wheat with it. For on the day of the harvest the weeds will appear; they will be pulled up and will be

61. Jesus said, Two will rest there on a couch; one will die, the other will live.
        Salome said, Who are you, man? Is it even as he from the one that you reclined on my couch and ate at my table?
        Jesus told her, I am he who is, from him who is the same; what belongs to my Father was given to me.
        Salome said, I myself am your disciple.
        Jesus told her, Because of that I say this: When he is emptied he will be filled with light; but when he is divided he will be filled with

62a. Jesus said, I tell my mysteries to those who are worthy of my mysteries.

62b. Whatever your right hand will do, don't let your left hand be aware of what it does.

63. Jesus said, There was a rich man, who had much wealth. He said, I will use my wealth in order that I may sow and reap and plant, and fill my storehouses with produce, so that I may lack nothing.
        This was what he thought in his heart; and during the night he
        Whoever here has two good ears had better listen!

64. Jesus said, A man had guests, and when he had prepared the dinner he sent his servant to invite the guests.
        He went to the first and said to him, My master invites you. But he answered, I have some money for some traders; they will come to me this evening. I will go and place orders with them. I ask to be excused from the dinner.
        He went to another, and said to him, My master invites you. But this one answered, I have bought a house and they request me for a day. I will not be able to come.
        He went to yet another, and said to him, My master invites you. But he answered, My friend is to be married and I am to arrange the feast; I shall not be able to come. I ask to be excused from the dinner.
        So the servant went to another guest and said to him, My master invites you. But this one said, I have bought a farm. I go to collect the rent. I will not be able to come. I ask to be excused.
        The servant returned, and said to his master, Those whom you have invited to the dinner have excused themselves.
        The master said to the servant, Go outside to the roads, bring those whom you will find, so that they may dine.
        Buyers and merchants shall not enter the kingdom of heaven.

65. Jesus said, A benevolent man had a vineyard. He gave it to husbandmen so that they would work it and he would receive his produce from their hands. He sent his servant so that the husbandmen would give him the fruit of his vineyard. They laid hold of his servant, they beat him; a little more and they would have killed him. The servant went, he reported to his master. His master said, Perhaps he didn't know them. He sent another servant; the husbandmen beat him also. Then the owner sent his son; he said, Perhaps they will respect my son. But because those husbandmen realized that he was the heir of the vineyard, they seized him, they killed him also.
        He who has ears to hear, let him hear!

66. Jesus said, Show me the stone which the builders have rejected; it is that, the cornerstone.

68. Jesus said, Happy are you when you are hated and pursued; and no place will be found there, where you have been pursued in the

69b. Happy are they who go hungry, so that the belly of those who are in want can be satisfied.

71. Jesus said, I will overturn this house, and no one will be able to build it again.

    (Luke 6:44;
    (Luke 6:45)

    (Luke 7:26;

    (cf #22a)

    (Luke 16:13;
    Matthew 6:24)

    (Luke 5:39)
    (Mark 2:22;
    Luke 5:37-38;
    (Mark 2:21;
    Luke 5:36;
    (Mark 11:23;
    Luke 17:6;
    Matt. 18:10;

    (Luke 17:20-21)

    (Luke 6:20;
    Matt. 5:3)

    (Luke 14:26;


    (Luke 17:34)

    (John 4:7-19?)

    (Luke 10:22;
    (John 3:35-36)
    (John 7:15)
    (Luke 11:34;

    (Luke 8:10;
    Mark 4:11)

    (Luke 12:16-21)

    (Luke 14:16-24;

    (Mark 12:1-9;
    Luke 20:9-16)

    (Luke 20:17;

    Luke 6:22)

    (Luke 6:21)

    (Mark 13:2);
    Luke 14:57;
    John 2:10;
    Acts 6:14)
(This has quite a different meaning from the way it is reported in both Matthew and Luke.)

72. A man said to him, Tell my brothers to divide my father's possessions with me. But he said to him, Oh man, who made me a
        He turned to his disciples and said, Is it that I am a divider?

73. Jesus said, The harvest is indeed great, but the labourers are few. Entreat, therefore, the Lord to send labourers to the harvest.

75. Jesus said, There are many standing at the door, but the "loners" are they who shall enter the marriage place.

76a. Jesus said, the kingdom of the Father is like a man, a merchant, who owned merchandise, and found a pearl.
        That merchant was wise; he sold the merchandise, and bought this one single pearl for himself.

76b. You also, seek after the treasure which does not perish, which remains in the place where no moth comes near to devour, and no worm destroys.

77. Jesus said, I am the light that is above them all. I am the All. The All comes forth from me and the All reaches towards me. Cleave the wood, I am there; lift up the stone, and you shall find me there.
    (Luke 12:13-15)

    (Luke 10:2;

    (Luke 13:25)


    (Luke 12:33;

    (John 8:12)

(Matthew's version of this saying is quite opposite from the way it is reported here and in John.)

78. Jesus said, Why did you come out into the country? To see a reed shaken by the wind? To see a man clothed in soft garments?
        See, your kings and your nobles; these are clothed in soft garments, and they will not be able to know the truth.

79a. A woman from the multitude said to him Fortunate is the womb that bore you and the breasts that suckled you.
        He said to her, Fortunate are they who have heard the Logos of the Father, and have genuinely kept it.

79b. For there will be days when you will say Fortunate is the womb that did not conceive and the breasts that did not suckle.

82. Jesus said, He who is near to me is near to the fire, and he who is far from me is far from the kingdom.

86. Jesus said, The foxes have their dens, and the birds have their nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head and rest.

89. Jesus said, Why do you wash the outside of the cup? Do you not understand that he who made the inside is also he who made the

90. Jesus said, Come to me, for easy is my yoke and my lordship is gentle, and you shall find repose for yourselves.

91. They said to him, Tell us who you are so that we may believe in
        He said to them, You know how to interpret the heaven and the earth, but him who is before your eyes you have not known, and you do not you know how to probe this revelation.

93. Give not what is pure to dogs, lest they cast it on the dungheap. Throw not pearls before swine lest they pollute them.

94. Jesus said, He who seeks shall find; and to him who knocks it shall be opened.

95. Jesus said, If you have money, do not lend at interest, but give it to him who will not (be able to) return it.

96. Jesus said, The kingdom of the Father is like a woman, who took a little leaven, hid it in dough and of it made large loaves.
        He who has ears let him hear!

99. The disciples said, Your brothers and your mother are standing outside.
        He said to them, Those here who do the wish of my Father, these are my mother and my brothers. These are they who shall enter the kingdom of my Father.

100. They showed Jesus a gold coin and said to him, Caesar's agents demand taxes from us.
        He said to them, Give the things of Caesar to Caesar, and give the things of God to God, and that which is mine, give to me.

101. He who does not turn away from his father and his mother in my way will not be able to become my disciple; and he who does not love his Father and his Mother in my way will not be able to become my disciple; for my mother has begotten me but my true Mother
gave me life.

104. They said to him, Come and let us pray today and let us fast!
        Jesus said, What therefore is the sin that I have committed or in what have I been overcome?
        But when the bridegroom comes out of the bridal chamber then let them fast and let them pray.

106. Jesus said, When you make the two one, you will become Sons of man, and if you say "Mountain, move away," it shall move.

107. Jesus said, The kingdom is like a shepherd who owned a hundred sheep. One among them (which was the largest) went astray; he left the ninety- nine, he sought after the one until he found it. When he had toiled, he said to the sheep, I love you more than the

108. Jesus said, He who drinks from my mouth shall become as me; and I myself will become him, and the hidden things shall be

109. Jesus said, The kingdom is like a man who owned in his field a hidden treasure, it being unknown to him. And after he died, he bequeathed it to his son. The son not knowing it, took that field, and sold it. And he who bought it, came. While ploughing, he found the treasure; he began to lend money at interest to whomsoever he

113. His disciples said to him, On which day will the kingdom
        Jesus said, It will not come by expectation; They will not say, "Look, it is here!" or "Look there!" But the kingdom of the Father is spread out over the earth and men do not see it. (cf.#3;#51)

114. Simon Peter said to them, Let Mary go out from among us, because women are not worthy of the life.
        Jesus said, Look, I will guide her Being, in order that I make her male that she shall become a living spirit, like you males. For every woman who makes herself male shall enter the kingdom of heaven.
    (Luke 7:24-28;

    (Luke 11:27-28)

    (Luke 23:27-31)

    (Luke 12:49-50)

    (Luke 9:58)

    (Luke 11:39-40;


    (Mark 8:11;
    (Luke 12:54;


    (Luke 11:9;

    (Luke 6:30;

    (Luke 13:20;

    (Mark 3:31-35;
    Luke 8:20-21;

    (Mark 12:14,17;
    Luke 20:22-25)

    (Luke 14:26;

    (Mark 2:18)

    (Mark 2:20)

    (Mark 11:22-23;
    Matt 21:21)

    (Luke 15:3-7;

    (John 7:37)


    (Luke 17:20-21)

    (Luke 10:38-42)

Appendix II contains the sayings found in the gospel of Thomas which are not found in the canonical gospels. Appendix III lists the passages from Thomas in order by the gospels of Mark, Luke, and Matthew.